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The subsea sector has been in existence since the 1940's but until 1978, its systems were primitive and poorly suited for the environment and production systems of today. The development of new technology has completely revolutionized the way the industry operates today. Projects today have subsea depths of 3,000 metres and are built on solid foundations laid nearly 45 years ago. Subsea systems have a vast range of uses, and today's subsea applications weren't even thought possible 45 years ago.

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Advanced technologies

The subsea industry has been around for many years, and has continued to expand as new and more sophisticated technologies have become available. This industry is driven by economic incentives, including the pursuit of large hydrocarbon production. Today, companies are creating projects with depths of over 3,000 meters, while utilizing technologies that were unimaginable 45 years ago. Listed below are some of the most advanced subsea systems:

SCILS: This revolutionary system is a lightweight and modular subsea tree system, requiring less topside equipment than a conventional system. Optime and Halliburton highlight its versatility as a tool to control subsea trees and evaluate their conditions. The technology is also cost-effective and can be used temporarily to make maintenance and inspections more efficient. In addition, SCILS can reduce the environmental footprint of subsea trees and other equipment.

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Umbilicals have been developed into sophisticated engineered products. They can transport fiber optics, high-voltage power, high-pressure hydraulics, and aggressive production chemicals. Oil and gas operators spend billions of dollars to develop and operate these systems. In addition to the costs of capital and operational costs, they must maintain them around the clock. As a result, umbilicals must withstand rigorous testing and inspection in order to ensure optimal performance.

Seabed storage tank

A Seabed storage tank can be a large offshore storage tank, filled with a light liquid (such as light oil) and towed to a desired location. When the desired location is reached, the tank can be pumped with seawater, which displaces the light oil into the accompanying tank. In a similar way, a subsea storage tank can be connected to another tank by a pipe.

Another subsea energy storage system combines a rigid tank positioned beneath the seabed with a pumped-storage system for converting electricity from an incoming water flow into usable power. The system has at least one elongated rigid pipeline, preferably more than 500 meters long, laid at the seabed location. The pipeline is electrically connected to the seabed location by a cable.

A seabed storage tank may be attached to an offshore production platform. It may be a more cost-effective solution for storing processed hydrocarbons. For example, a conventional tension leg platform could also have storage facilities. In such a case, the hydrocarbons produced by the platform are pumped to a seabed storage tank 100 through a supply riser 142. The riser 142 serves as a piping system from the platform to the tank.

In addition to subsea tanks, a seabed storage tank can be used to temporarily store well fluid before transferring it to a shuttle tanker. The tank can reduce the size of floaters, reduces transport distance, and is environmentally friendly. The only disadvantage is that the subsea tank does not have the same safety features as conventional tanks, so it can be subject to environmental hazards.

Individual subsea wells

Helix and Schlumberger have joined forces to provide solutions for subsea intervention. The ROCS platform combines a large control container with a remotely operated tubing hanger. The ROCS system replaces the cumbersome topside hydraulic unit and adds remote controls to make operations safer and more efficient. The system can also be used in ultra-deepwater basins with higher well pressures.

The individual subsea tree directs the produced fluid to the flowline through a choke. This subsea tree monitors various well parameters at the tree level, including temperature and pressure. The subsea tree is also equipped with valves for controlling the flow of produced and injected fluids. This system also injects protection fluids, such as ethane, kerosene, and argon.

SCILS has been used to complete three wells by Aker BP. Two of these were completed in the North Sea. The Kamelon Infill Mid and Skogul wells are scheduled to be completed in the Alvheim area in 2020. As a result of the successful implementation of SCILS, the industry has seen a rise in well completions and a decrease in the overall cost of drilling.

The umbilical is the part of the subsea production system that connects the flowline and the host facility. The length of the umbilical will vary according to the spacing between the subsea components and the distance from the host facility. Moreover, the production riser is the part of the flowline between the wellhead and the host facility. Its length depends on the water depth and its configuration, which may be vertical or wave-like.

Clustered wells

Having multiple subsea wells on one central structure improves efficiency and safety, while reducing the overall cost of subsea well development. The layout of clustered wells in subsea systems also allows for more efficient management of the subsea field due to the shared functions, flowlines, and control equipment. In addition, clustered wells require fewer umbilicals and flowlines.

The advantages of clustering wells in subsea systems are many. First, they are cost-effective. There is no need to build a separate well template for each well. Second, the installation vessel's size limits the number of clustered wells. The smaller size of a monohull well template makes it a better option for subsea installations. The monohull vessel is much smaller and offers a lower cost. Finally, clustering wells provide a greater degree of flexibility, especially when it comes to adjusting and modifying existing subsea installations.

Third, clustered wells in subsea systems can be installed on a solitary or multiple platform. Clustered wells have the advantage of saving space and weight. The ROCS system can reduce operational risks. The ROCS system, developed by Optime Subsea, has been deployed in an AErfugl-field on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The ROCS system was developed over several years, and the company invested significant resources in its development.

Underwater tunnel inspector

An underwater tunnel inspector, also known as an STU, is an underwater worker. He or she is required to use sophisticated technology to complete his or her work. For this job, he or she must have a strong understanding of underwater structures. In this video, we will see what an underwater tunnel inspector does on a daily basis. Listed below are some of the responsibilities of an underwater tunnel inspector. You can use it to inspect any underwater tunnel in the world.

As the world leader in underwater robotics, ASI is capable of performing simultaneous tunnel inspections. ASI's Mohican ROV and Falcon remotely operated vehicle are specifically designed for underwater tunnel inspections. The underwater vehicles are powered from the surface and can operate for extended periods of time. The ASI robots are also equipped with high-resolution imaging capabilities that enable them to perform 3D volumetric inspections of assets and perform other tasks. The team complied with the tight timeline by using real-time visual data and high-density dimensional data.

SeaVision sonars are excellent tools for underwater inspections. They can penetrate up to 15,000ft and 3,000 meters and can also navigate through 19-inch manholes. SeaVision can also identify major defects. It is a cost-effective solution that meets the needs of the industry. Besides visual inspection, this underwater robot can also perform 3D mapping of underwater infrastructure. With this tool, underwater engineers can identify major defects.


Inspecting subsea systems requires a comprehensive understanding of the asset and its surroundings. The American Petroleum Institute (API) defines the requirements for the inspection of subsea assets and subsea structures. The inspection plan is based on a series of criteria. Specifically, the IWEX technique enables engineers to produce better images by determining defects and identifying their causes. A full array is used, capturing the complete waveform and A-sweeps of each transducer.

A comprehensive inspection plan should be developed and executed based on the results of the initial assessment. The detailed assessment takes into account the different levels of detail, ranging from single subsea equipment to systems that operate in different environments. It involves using advanced prediction models to predict the probability of failure. Furthermore, it incorporates probabilistic and deterministic failure probability assessment. As a result, an optimized inspection plan can be produced.

Underwater inspection is classified according to its level of sophistication. Level I involves the detection of obvious major damage. It does not involve cleaning structural elements but provides initial input into the inspection strategy. It is performed by divers and may include tactile observation. The inspection time may vary from a few days per platform to a few weeks. This means that the inspection of subsea systems should be conducted at least every six to 11 years.